What are isotropic and anisotropic materials?
Isotropy means that a material has the same properties in all directions. In other words, it looks identical from different angles or dimensions. When you heat an isotropic substance, its elements change equally and uniformly as they gain energy. Anisotropic materials can be hard to understand because their properties depend on direction as well as temperature changes.
5 Differences between isotropic and anisotropic magnets
firstly, the difference between isotropic and anisotropic magnets is if when the magnets are produced they need to be oriented. The isotropic magnet doesn’t need to be oriented in the magnetic direction during manufacturing. For example, Alnico 2 Magnet is an isotropic magnet, and the Alnico magnet usually orients the magnetic direction in the heat treatment process, the Alnico 2 magnet doesn’t need to put the magnetic field to orient the magnetic direction. And Alnico 5 or Alnico 8 magnets are Anisotropic magnets. when they are heat-treated, they need to put them into a parallel magnetic field, to orient the magnet direction.
secondly, the differences are the isotropic magnet can be magnetized in any direction to get a full magnetic performance. But the anisotropic magnet only can be magnetized in the direction that had been confirmed at the manufacturing process.
thirdly, the anisotropic magnet would be stronger than the isotropic if the same materials. For example, Alnico 7 is an isotropic magnet that has a similar Alnico 8 magnet, but the isotropic magnet version. The Alnico 8 have stronger magnetic properties comparing with Alnico 7.
Then the important features for the isotropic magnet can easily be magnetized to multi-poles. but if the anisotropic magnet needs to produce to multi-poles, they need to be oriented during manufacturing. lots of shapes and multi-poles magnets cannot be produced by the anisotropic magnet, because of the difficulties in the manufacturing process, on mold design, or other issues.
The sintered NdFeB magnets cannot produce isotropic magnets, usually, for the isotropic magnet need, the bonded NdFeB is a good option. They can supply a good magnetic performance and other advantages.